Global Pandemic

In 2016 the United Nations declared antibiotic resistance “the greatest and most urgent global risk”

2042-Graphic-747-Day

Today authorities estimate the annual worldwide death toll due to antibiotic resistance at 700,000.
That is equal to three fully loaded 747s crashing every day, no survivors

 

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By 2050 an estimated 10 million people could die every year due to anti-microbial resistance (AMR) unless a global response to AMR is mounted.
That is equal to three fully loaded 747s crashing every hour, no survivors

Superbug MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) kills more Americans each year than HIV/Aids, Parkinson’s disease, emphysema and homicide combined

Biofilm formation can make bacteria up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics, antimicrobial agents, disinfectants and the host immune system and are acknowledged to be one of the main contributors to the “antibiotic resistance crisis”

– Singh S, Singh SK, Chowdhury I, Singh R. Understanding the Mechanism of Bacterial Biofilms Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents. The Open Microbiology Journal. 2017;11:53-62.

Biofilms impact on…

ANIMAL HEALTH

Companion Pet Care

  • According to the American Veterinary Dental Society, 70% of cats and 80% of dogs will suffer from some form of periodontal disease by the time they are 2-3 years oldii
  • If left unchecked this can lead to systemic diseases including heart disease, diabetes, respiratory disease, obesity and pancreatic cancer
  • Vet bills for dental work can range from $500 up to $1000 dollars or more
  • Ear infections are the #1 reason dogs are taken to the vet
  • Atopic dermatitis is estimated to affect 20% of dogs leading to itchy inflamed skin that can be difficult to treatiii
  • Biofilms may contribute to the reoccurrence of these infections and prevention of successful treatment
  • Anti biofilm products can aid in disrupting biofilm when used routinely

 

Livestock Care

  • Biofilms are commonly found in water lines, production lines and other equipment used in agricultural facilities leading to contamination and disease
  • Additives in poultry drinking water can promote the growth of biofilm in the water lines leading to poor flock health and performanceiv
  • Mastitis is one of the most common and most expensive diseases of dairy cattle in the world. One third of all dairy cows are estimated to have mastitis which costs the dairy industry about $1.7 to $2 billion annuallyv

Biofilm formation can contribute to the reinfection of dairy cows and prolong treatment times and costs

HUMAN HEALTH

Skin Care

  • Atopic dermatitis (Eczema), a chronic inflammatory skin condition, affects 10-20% of children with 60% of cases occurring within the first year and 85% before the age of 5vi
  • Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic inflammation of the skin that affects 5% of the worldwide population. It causes scaly patches, red skin, itching and stubborn dandruffvii
  • Around 15-25% of the worldwide population are likely to have athlete’s foot at any one time. Immunocompromised patients can experience disseminated fungal disease, which has a particularly high treatment failure rate (30.8%)viii
  • Dispersal of bacterial and fungal biofilm can aid in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these chronic skin conditions

 

Wound Care

  • Over 90% of chronic wounds contain bacteria & fungi living in a biofilm stateix
  • It is claimed that an excess of $25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic woundsx
  • The American Diabetes Association estimates that more than 7 million diabetics in the US will have a diabetic foot ulcer in their lifetime and 15% will end up with a lower limb amputation
  • Chronic wounds can be painful, debilitating, and can undermine mobility and quality of life. If left untreated chronic wounds or ulcers can lead to loss of limbs or death
  • Dispersal of wound biofilm is essential in aiding the healing process

INSTITUTIONAL, COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL AND HOME

Health Care Facilities

  • Most serious infections occur in health care settings
  • 2 million Americans develop hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) every year resulting in 99,000 deaths, most due to antibiotic resistant pathogensxi. This is the 4th leading cause of death after heart disease, cancer and stroke
  • About 60–70% of HAIs are associated with implanted medical devicesxii. These include catheters, artificial hip and knee joints and cosmetic breast implants
  • All medical devices are susceptible to biofilm growth which can lead to bacterial infection
  • Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality rates are climbing
  • Studies have shown disinfectants currently used in hospitals are ineffective against biofilms attached to surfaces and fail to control these sources of HAIs

 

Food Safety and Food Processing

  • Biofilms can exist on all types of surfaces in food processing plants: floors, walls, pipes, drains, surfaces of equipment, food contact surfaces
  • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates the costs associated with food borne illness to be about $5.5 billion to $22 billion a year
  • In order to remove biofilms on food contact surfaces or any hard surface, disinfectants will need to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity

 

Domestic Settings

  • Studies have shown that more than 80% of the homes examined had the presence of E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter at wet sites such as kitchen/bathroom sinks and sink drain u-bendsxiii,xiv
  • Fecal bacteria concentrations in sink and sponge samples were very high with 67% of all samples testing positivexv

Similar to food processing surfaces, domestic disinfectants will need to have antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity